It saw itself as a universal empire.  There was a renewed interest in classical Greek philosophy, as well as an increase in literary output in vernacular Greek. Despite the restoration under the Palaiologoi, Byzantium was never again a great power on the scale of the past. Westholme Publishing. The collapse of imperial power and authority after 1185 revealed the inadequacy of this approach.  Greek for a time became diglossic with the spoken language, known as Koine (eventually evolving into Demotic Greek), used alongside an older written form (Attic Greek) until Koine won out as the spoken and written standard. Alexios offered to reunite the Byzantine church with Rome, pay the crusaders 200,000 silver marks, join the crusade and provide all the supplies they needed to get to Egypt.  The name millet-i Rûm, or "Roman nation," was used by the Ottomans until the 20th century to refer to the former subjects of the Byzantine Empire, that is, the Orthodox Christian community within Ottoman realms.  In 746, profiting by the unstable conditions in the Umayyad Caliphate, which was falling apart under Marwan II, Constantine V invaded Syria and captured Germanikeia and the Battle of Keramaia resulted in a major Byzantine naval victory over the Umayyad fleet.  Additionally, Latin remained a minority language in the Empire, mainly on the Italian peninsula and along the Dalmatian coast, eventually developing into various Romance languages like Dalmatian.  In time, one of the Beys, Osman I, created an empire that would eventually conquer Constantinople. That practice eventually spread to the rest of Europe.. Even imperial officials were harshly treated, and the death penalty was decreed even for simply reading or possessing pamphlets directed against the Emperor.  Following this, Heraclius led an invasion into Sassanid Mesopotamia once again. Constantine’s successors continued expanding the empire, ultimately leading to the Byzantine Empire to cover most of the Mediterranean region encompassing Egypt, Sicily, Italy, Greece, and Rome.  This relationship would have long-lasting repercussions in the history of the East Slavs, and the Empire quickly became the main trading and cultural partner for Kiev.  Their success came with surprising ease, but it was not until 548 that the major local tribes were subdued. Although Agapetus failed in his mission to sign a peace with Justinian, he succeeded in having the Monophysite Patriarch Anthimus I of Constantinople denounced, despite Empress Theodora's support and protection.
" In the early 5th century, Greek gained equal status with Latin as official language in the East and emperors gradually began to legislate in Greek rather than Latin starting with the reign of Leo I the Thracian in the 460s. , The situation became worse for Byzantium during the civil wars after Andronikos III died. He may also have been the last native Latin-speaking emperor.
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