Early on, it provided the government with a stable force to address domestic and foreign problems.
University of Chicago Press, 1946. harvnb error: multiple targets (5×): CITEREFBobrick2012 (. Outside Iraq, all the autonomous provinces slowly took on the characteristic of de facto states with hereditary rulers, armies, and revenues and operated under only nominal caliph suzerainty, which may not necessarily be reflected by any contribution to the treasury, such as the Soomro Emirs that had gained control of Sindh and ruled the entire province from their capital of Mansura. Their failure as propagandists is doubtless due to two causes, first, that, according to the inflexible rule of their creed, the Koran might not be translated into Chinese or any other foreign language; secondly and chiefly, that their denunciations of idolatry were as unpalatable to ancestor-worshipping Chinese as were their interdicts against pork and wine. When Harun developed this holy talent, the people lit torches and decorated the streets with wreaths of flowers, and his father, Al-Mahdi, freed 500 slaves. By 1000 they had become the chief political and ideological challenge to Sunni Islam and the Abbasids, who by this time had fragmented into several governorships that, while recognizing caliphal authority from Baghdad, remained mostly autonomous. The political power of the caliphs was limited with the rise of the Iranian Buyids and the Seljuq Turks, who captured Baghdad in 945 and 1055, respectively. The Fatimid dynasty took control of Idrisid and Aghlabid domains, advanced to Egypt in 969, and established their capital near Fustat in Cairo, which they built as a bastion of Shia learning and politics. The total Moslem population is probably under 4,000,000, though other statistical estimates, always uncertain in China, vary from thirty to ten millions; but the figures given here are the most reliable at present obtainable, and when it is remembered that Islam in China has not been to any great extent a preaching or propagandist power by force or the sword, it is difficult to understand the survival and existence of such a large number as that, small, indeed, compared with former estimates, but surely a very large and vigorous element.
Harun al-Rashid sent a successful punitive mission to the region to reassert Abbasid control and sovereignty. In 829 Al Ma'mun the 7th Caliph of the Abbasids sent an army of 50,000 men to crush the secessionist enclaves and add them back to the Caliphate.. In addition, the period saw the recovery of much of the Alexandrian mathematical, geometric and astronomical knowledge, such as that of Euclid and Claudius Ptolemy.  The Abbasids also appealed to non-Arab Muslims, known as mawali, who remained outside the kinship-based society of the Arabs and were perceived as a lower class within the Umayyad empire. During the reign of Marwan II, this opposition culminated in the rebellion of Ibrahim al-Imam [ca], the fourth in descent from Abbas. The walls of the principal rooms of the palace that have been excavated show wall paintings and lively carved stucco dadoes.
A new position, that of the vizier, was also established to delegate central authority, and even greater authority was delegated to local emirs. , There were large feasts on certain days, as the Muslims of the empire celebrated Christian holidays as well as their own.
Harun required that paper be employed in government dealings, since something recorded on paper could not easily be changed or removed, and eventually, an entire street in Baghdad's business district was dedicated to selling paper and books. Land routes were also utilized through Central Asia.  One of the biggest reasons why dhimmis were allowed to hold prestigious jobs and positions in government is that they were generally important to the well-being of the state and were proficient to excellent with the work at hand.  Mesopotamia only has one surviving mausoleum from this era, in Samarra. The caliph al-Qadir, for example, led the ideological struggle against the Shia with writings such as the Baghdad Manifesto. This period of localized secular control was to last nearly 100 years. , Under Harun, maritime trade through the Persian Gulf thrived, with Arab vessels trading as far south as Madagascar and as far east as China, Korea, and Japan. While al-Mansur was ruling the Caliphate, for instance, it was not uncommon for dhimmis to live in the same neighborhoods as Muslims.
Early world history according to Al Biruni: https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/1030al-biruni1.asp.  Several embassies from the Abbasid Caliphs to the Chinese court have been recorded in the T'ang Annals, the most important of these being those of Abul Abbas al-Saffah, the first Abbasid caliph; his successor Abu Jafar; and Harun al-Rashid. Sahara and Sudan: Kawar, Bornu, Kanem, Borku, Enned.  Abbasid pottery from the 8th and 9th centuries has been found throughout the region, as far as Cairo.
They were not mentioned in the edict of 845, which proved such a blow to Buddhism and Nestorian Christianity perhaps because they were less obtrusive in the propagation of their religion, a policy aided by the absence of anything like a commercial spirit in religious matters. These were typically round stamps, such as medallions or disks with animals, birds, or Kufic inscriptions.
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