The prime characteristics of igneous rocks used for identification purposes are color and size of crystals. The average rate of c reduction is about 1 MPa/7 days. Through the conversion of the time scale, saturation under pH = 3 could be tried to simulate the long-term effect caused by natural environment in a short time, which may shed some lights on predicting the durability of rock masses in nature.
Nonetheless, the researches on the mechanism of rock chemical damage based on the effects of water and rock microscopic effect are still relatively scarce [38–41]. This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant nos 51774132, 51774131, 51974118, and 51904101) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province (Grant no. However, when the cooling of magma occurs slowly, crystallization usually happens.
Corrosion Sci (1993) 34:1881–98. Therefore, the radius change is: Based on the development of diameter, the development of corrosion depth is presented in Figure 13B.
It proves the existence of water-soluble mineral components.
In BCM, organisms have evolved to synthesize minerals that are employed for a particular function, such as structural support, protection against predators, or magnetic sensing. While it’s not volcanic (in which case it would likely be pumice or obsidian), it does require a much quicker crystallization process. The mass damage features and mechanical properties of diorite specimens saturated in solutions with different pH values were analyzed. Tang L, Wang S. Progress in the study on mechanical effect of the chemical action of water-rock on deformation and failure of rocks.
It is also used to control soil erosion by being utilized as a drainage stone. We thank Longjun Dong, Xiaofan Wu, Jie Liu, Wenhao Li, Wenbing Peng, and Qiuhong Wu for useful discussions and early contributions to the project as well as the reviewers for very helpful and inspiring comments. Partial melting of oceanic plates results in the production of basaltic magma. The major ore deposit types that contain substantial amounts of sulfide minerals are shown in Table 3. The disseminated to massive stratiform sulfide ores that occur, often conformably, within sedimentary sequences grade into the volcanogenic deposits discussed above. If the cooling of magma takes place rapidly, the igneous rock formed often contains fine-grained components, and its chemical composition is basically the same as that of the magma. doi:10.1016/j.engfailanal.2012.08.007, 24. Diorite, being a mix of minerals, varies in its properties, but depending on the source it generally is moderately hard.
Zhao Y, Zhang L, Wang W, Wan W, Ma W. Separation of elastoviscoplastic strains of rock and a nonlinear creep model. Dong L, Zou W, Li X, Shu W, Wang Z. Collaborative localization method using analytical and iterative solutions for microseismic/acoustic emission sources in the rockmass structure for underground mining. It has a coarse, grainy structure, wherein its large grains are arranged in an interlinked pattern. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.10.291, 50. The sulfides in these deposits (pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and, in some cases, pyrite) are regarded as having formed by the crystallization of an immiscible sulfide melt that separated from the main silicate melt. But researches on the damage effects of water-rock chemistry on the mechanical properties of rock mass have been rarely reported [45, 46]. Color of igneous rocks may be light or dark, whereas the crystal size is either small or large, based on how crystallization process takes place. In sulfide ores in volcanosedimentary sequences that are associated with ophiolite complexes, as in the Troodos Complex deposits (Cyprus), pyrite and chalcopyrite dominate. Many cobblestone streets in England, Scotland, and other places around the world were constructed using diorite. The number of micro-fissures and micro-pores increased, and some independent small-sized micro-pores were dispersively interconnected with each other to form a larger “gully” (Figure 4C). With increasing saturation time, the damage rate slowed down and finally stabilized. In other rocks such as igneous rocks a bedding structure may also be found, but usually on a smaller scale. Chen S, Feng X, Zhou H. Study on triaxial meso-failure mechanism and damage variables of sandstone under chemical erosion. Photo copyright iStockphoto / jskiba.
(2) The strength of diorite specimen is proportional to its matrix bearing area and inversely proportional to its porosity. As a result of this slow cooling gives crystals enough time to grow to easily seen size.
It has intermediate chemical composition. Diorites may be associated with either granite or gabbro intrusions, into which they may subtly merge. The formation of sulfides in all of these environments is probably linked to the reaction of metals, particularly iron, released by the dissolution of detrital oxides and silicates, with sulfur produced by the bacterial reduction of sulfate present in interstitial waters. doi:10.1007/s11595-017-1569-y, 9. In light of the above work, the main conclusions of this paper can be drawn as follows: (1) Under the action of acidic chemical solutions, the microstructure of the amorphous particles changes, which causes damage to the physical properties and weakens the macro mechanical performances of diorite.
Zhou XP, Yang HQ. It consists of quartz and is outstanding from granite through its having extra plagioclase feldspar than orthoclase feldspar; its other mineral constituents include hornblende, biotite, and augite. Wang ZH, Li L, Zhang YX, Zheng SS. doi:10.3321/j.issn:1000-6915.2008.12.022, 26. Comparison of mass differences before and after different saturations: (A) rock samples soaked with distilled water, (B) rock samples under pH = 5 acidic saturation, and (C) rock samples under pH = 3 acidic saturation.
By using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electronic energy spectroscopy, they also discussed the aging features of acidic chemical solution on the macrophysical properties [12, 18, 37]. Under acidic solution, the oxidized mineral components in diorite will react with H+ as follows: FIGURE 2. Dunning J, Douglas B, Miller M, McDonald S. The role of the chemical environment in frictional deformation: stress corrosion cracking and comminution.
Among several plant species investigated, the utilization of K from gneiss followed the order: maize > ryegrass > alfalfa, and a greater uptake was possible from finer-sized particles (Wang et al., 2000). TABLE 1.
Received: 19 April 2020; Accepted: 14 September 2020;Published: 07 October 2020. 18 the strength damage of diorite will reach 0.34 instead of developing continuously. For those reasons, it is not a favored stone of sculptors, although it was popular among ancient sculptors of the Middle East. Images of four types (A–D) of synthetic pyrite framboids obtained using scanning electron microscopy. The density of this rock is between 2.36 and 2.53 grams per cubic centimeter, and its specific gravity is between 2.8 and 3.0 times greater than that of water. Diorite is usually grey to dark grey in colour, but it can also be black or bluish-grey, and frequently has a greenish cast. It usually contains little if any quartz. In general, the physical and mechanical properties in the horizontal direction to a bedding plane are largely different from those in the vertical direction to the bedding plane. The change of φ shows a clear decreasing trend. Hence, the damage rate q(t) can be defined as: The TCS gradually decreases with time. Construct Build Mater (2020) 250:118862. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.118862, 52. Studies of the sulfides in the best-known of all layered basic intrusions, the Bushveld Complex, also show a dominance of pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite along with minor but economically vital platinum-group minerals. Limestone and Other Base-Rich Rock. Diorite might contain small amounts of apatite, ilmenite, microcline, and other minerals. It has a durability that compares favorably to granite and trap rock. doi:10.1016/0148-9062(93)90104-l, 19.
The main changes of the specimen surface after saturation in a hydrochemical solution are reflected in macro and micro aspects [8, 49–51]. Meanwhile, the pH value increases significantly, which is close to neutral. Sulfide minerals can form at Earth surface temperatures by biologically-induced mineralization processes; here, bacteria known as dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) supply reactive sulfide ions to form the sulfides.
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Melbourne (1948), 16. doi:10.1007/s12665-019-8779-x, 39. Meanwhile, in various water-related rock engineering constructions, such as dam foundation, slope, tunnel, and underground mining, it is important to understand the influence of water erosion on the characteristics of the bearing capacity and deformation of the structure [11, 12, 16, 17]. Articles, Institute of Physics of São Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. doi:10.1007/s00603-016-0932-1, 45. Many studies have been undertaken of sulfur isotope ratios (32S:34S) in sulfide minerals from rocks and ore deposits. If a crack or a fissure is very long, for example, more than a kilometer in length, it is called a fault. After reaching a certain time (35 days), the damage gradually stabilizes. Thus, in the first 12 h, the solution of pH = 3 causes 103.49 times the damage compared to that of pH = 5. doi:10.1016/j.tafmec.2005.05.003, 18. Cement Concr Res (2015) 69:96–104. Adv Earth Sci (1999) 14:433–9.
Thus, the calculated results are provided in Table 1. Samples were randomly selected from the acidic solutions of pH = 3 and pH = 5. Pyrite and greigite were firstly described as the primary mineral phases in this organism, and mackinawite was subsequently identified as a precursor. The results show: 1) after acidic saturation, the original lamellar structures and crystal forms were spongy or flocculent. The average value of the factors at pH = 3 is 2.30%, while which at pH = 5 is 1.21% (see Figure 6B). The mass damage factors of the samples saturated for 49 days at pH = 3 and pH = 5 are presented in Figure 6. Table 1 lists the changes in the amount of H+ substances under the two acidic solutions. Therefore, igneous rock is favorable for underground space construction such as nuclear waste depository. The time scale reflects the chemical damage caused by the two acidic solutions. Test pieces were inserted into the preservation boxes containing the hydrochloric acid solution. According to Figure 8A, the fitted curve of M(t) at condition of pH = 3 is: The fitted curve of M(t) under solution of pH = 5 is: According to Figure 8B, the fitted curve of D(t) at condition of pH = 3 is: The fitted curve of D(t) under solution of pH = 5 is: Thus, the decreasing rate of D(t) at condition of pH = 3 is: The decreasing rate of D(t) under solution of pH = 5 is: With increasing saturation time, the cumulative damage of the mass gradually increases and finally stabilizes (see Figure 8B). [35, 36] performed uniaxial compression, triaxial compression and splitting tests on the dry granite specimens and corroded ones. The primary components of diorite include biotite, andesine, pyroxene and homblende.
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