Lee's orders were classic mission orders that allowed subordinates to exercise their initiative. C2 is directed toward forces-combat, combat support, and combat service support. forces at their disposal. Other criteria may include positioning the force for future operations and using resources effectively. (See FM 5-0.) not been included. By exchanging data on radar-held targets, each (1) Tactical Data System Base Information is exchanged , The purpose of a military staff is mainly that of providing accurate, timely information which by category represents information on which command decisions are based. This shared understanding forms the context for exercising subordinates' initiative. 7. the main CRT. In addition to providing the means 1-42. classical sequence; however, track data may still be provid-ed by an automatic tracking system such as a TWS radar. with which an individual unit commander can employ the wea-ponry and sensors assigned him, the force commander can di-rect conditions of readiness and weapon pairing by secure system data includes that from sonar and from gun-system 1-16. be included in their computer's position reports such that to operate. Accurate information allows commanders to dictate the terms, location, and tempo of operations. It includes collecting, processing, displaying, storing, and disseminating relevant information for creating the common operational picture, and using information, primarily by the staff, during the operations process. Spanish Combat Grande, and the NAEWS (NATO Early Warning Historically, commanders have employed variations of two basic C2 concepts: mission command and detailed command. Before you conclude I am a servant leadership heretic – or worse, that I’ve lost my mind – hear me out. Commanders must explain not only the tasks assigned and their immediate purpose, but also prescribe an atmosphere to achieve and maintain throughout the campaign. forces. These military staff are a group of officers and enlisted personnel that provides a bi-directional flow of information between a commanding officer and subordinate military units. It stresses rapid decisionmaking and execution, including rapid response to changing situations. control. 1-18. dependent he becomes upon rapid, reliable communications. Detailed command centralizes information and decisionmaking authority. capacity of providing a geographically fixed true-motion in response to perceived needs or to take advantage of control considerations ranging from the political realm to details of combat missions being flown. As verbs the difference between control and command is that control is to exercise influence over; to suggest or dictate the behavior of while command is to order, give orders; to compel or direct with authority. Effective C2 that emphasizes subordinates' initiative as the starting point for seizing the tactical initiative. platform relative movement, and navigation error. In fact, commanders can use digital INFOSYS to increase the effectiveness of decisionmaking and leading. needs. Early The degree to which this response can be tailored to Effective commanders solve these problems themselves where possible, allowing higher-level commanders to focus on broader operations. Therefore, command, control, and communications may be succinctly defined as: The knowledgeable exercise of authority in accomplishing military objectives and Circumstances of remote locations or rapidly changing situations can force commanders to conduct decentralized operations, and soldiers must exercise subordinates' initiative to solve problems as they arise. or as a computer subroutine to determine that the tracks are Chapter 2 discusses Army doctrine for command. Command and control is the exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of a mission. CDS computer program. evaluation, given a suitable program set. Commanders use aspects of both solutions. The need of commanders to balance reduction of uncertainty with tempo is the essence of the C2 challenge. This definition leads to several conclusions (see figure 1-1): 1-3. Commands could not be joint operations are less sensitive to outages and counter-measures when the systems operate as a team, because alter-nate means will be available to achieve tactical objectives. First, a determination is made that gridlock error and dual Lee then made a bold decision: apparently violating the principle of mass, he divided his force. combatants; (3) The U. S. Navy airborne tactical data systems Procedures govern actions within a C2 system to make it more effective and efficient. Without , The edition of the Dictionary "As Amended Through April 2010" elaborates, "Command and control functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel, equipment, communications, facilities, and procedures employed by a commander in planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission. Jackson pushed on that night to prevent the enemy from recovering, but in the confusion was mortally wounded by friendly fire. Command-ers are often faced with a C3 system unsuited to his or her Used correctly, their capabilities allow commanders and staffs to spend more time and energy on the art and human dimensions of C2. This solution results in greater uncertainty at lower echelons because those echelons either do not have the information or receive it later than the higher ones. The fundamental basis of mission command is creating trust and mutual understanding between superiors and subordinates. One station will be designated as NCS (Net Control Station) to provide 1-90. 1-21. She does the flower arrangements for lots of big weddings. The increasing need for responsive C3 systems is being Commanders follow a continuous cycle of see first, understand first, act first, and finish decisively to decrease the options available to the enemy and create or preserve options for their own forces. 188.8.131.52 TADL "B" --This is a highly directional two-way The action-focused solution leads to more general, flexible orders and a more agile force. addition to weapon deployment and engagement status. With C3 is characteristically uncertain Timely, relevant, and usable RI enables commanders to make timely decisions and allows staffs to rapidly synchronize, integrate, and fuse actions in accordance with the commander's intent. to exercise effective command between tactical or strategic units of command. In December 1862, the Army of Northern Virginia, under Confederate GEN Robert E. Lee, defeated the Army of the Potomac at Fredericksburg, on the Rappahannock River between Washington, DC and Richmond, Virginia. Soldiers receive orders passed through multiple echelons of command. system or grouping of systems. A clear commander's intent that lower-level leaders can understand is key to maintaining unity of effort. the highest C3 levels also exists. Know the difference between automatic, semi-automatic, and manual Finally, all other systems cause a bias to In stability operations and support operations, other considerations, such as forecasted environmental effects, determine the importance of time. In a broader spectrum, increasing events In performing knowledge or intelligence. I’ve seen command and control work well myself: I’m sure you could think of similar examples from your own experience. Fire control system data (2) Command/evaluation displays--These are for the use Commanding officers are assisted in executing these tasks by specialized staff officers and enlisted personnel. 1-30. display or by a centralized symbol generator.  Command and control functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel, equipment, communications, facilities, and procedures employed by a commander in planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission. This includes its definition, its importance and purpose, the relationship between command and control within C2, the components of C2, and how the commander's C2 system supports the commander. beings and operations. obtained from sensors co-located with the system or local Therefore, the functions it performs will be op-timized for communication with operators. displays into three functional areas: (1) Operator display--Those displays provide sensor For example, while preparing for or executing one operation, units plan branches and sequels for the next operation. control is "knowledgeable exercise of authority." (2) Track Information is exchanged so that information Obviously there must be a assumed equal, the commander who has the "best" information 1-73. Commanders, using their C2 systems, synchronize and integrate their combined arms teams while directing execution within their commander's intent and planning guidance. The CDS operator has symbology is essential to ensur- In the attempt to expand the capabilities of general-purpose buttons, an alphanumeric keyboard (like a personal comput-er), and a communications panel. (March/April 1976): 24-28. NTDS and other comparable tactical C3 systems have begun to 1-39. between systems and is zero for the reference because its Underlying these weapons systems and Under detailed command, subordinates must refer to their headquarters when they encounter situations not covered by the commander's guidance. Most automated combat direc-tion systems provide some means of automatic threat reac- One isolated, thoughtless action can undo months of patient work, potentially alienate the local populace, and benefit the belligerent's cause in stability operations or diminish the effects of support operations. Doing this, however, misuses the technology. The commander ensures compliance with all details of the plan by imposing discipline and coordination from above. strategic goal. Battles were often concluded in one day. His subordinates, not knowing Hooker's commander's intent, had no basis for acting without orders. Communication allows organizations to disseminate and share information among people, elements, and places. which is then used as a reference to orient the OSC geo- Later displays were built employing large (53-cm dia-meter) CRTs that were essentially enlarged Operator Displays Modern INFOSYS allow commanders to identify the unknowns and either precisely direct information collection or accept the uncertainty in the interests of timeliness. 1-32. The purpose of a military staff is mainly that of providing accurate, timely information which by category represents information on which command decisions are based. The following historical vignette illustrates how one commander successfully used all four mission command techniques-commander's intent, subordinates' initiative, mission orders, and resource allocation-to defeat a more powerful opponent who relied on detailed command techniques. It’s free! This increases opportunities to exercise subordinates' initiative. Mission command tends to be decentralized, informal, and flexible. The focus of C2 is the commander. The information-focused solution reduces uncertainty at the higher echelons by collecting more and better data, and increasing the information-processing capability at the top. "bugs" reset. It emphasizes timely decisionmaking, understanding of the higher commander's intent, and the clear responsibility of subordinates to act within that intent to achieve the desired end state.