causes of the taiping rebellion

By October 23, 2020Uncategorized


Immediately preceding the Taiping upsure, during the 1840s, there were a number of uprisings led by peasants or displaced handicraft workers, etc. Neglected the development of science and technology, unaware of the benefits of science and technology All rights reserved. Voici quelques-unes des questions posées[76] : Sans qu'il s'agisse du point essentiel qui les pousse à soutenir finalement le régime des Qing, ces deux questionnaires échangés avec Yang Xiuqing amènent cependant les Britanniques à avoir une opinion négative du régime Taiping. Both the Chinese communists and the Chinese Nationalists trace their origin to the Taipings.
Les sergents prêchent alors, pendant que les familles écoutent, avant d'entonner des hymnes. They wished to cement their notion of the east as comprising of essentially backward, decadent and stagnant societies that kept undergoing perpetual periods of crisis. These newly settled areas, because of migration from different areas, had a more mixed population. [5] S.Y. Emperor Dao-guang could hardly get his soldiers to go to the front and the military discipline of the soldiers was really outrageous. Institutional deterioration was also led by the decline in Manchu leadership. Une particularité très inhabituelle de l'armée des Taiping était le nombre de femmes important qu'elle comprenait, de l'ordre de 100 000 femmes combattant dans « l'Armée des femmes » des Taiping[45]. Hong Xiuquan et les dirigeants des Taiping pratiquent la polygamie, alors que celle-ci a été interdite. It is not without significance that, apart from the Hakka people, the initial adherents of the Taiping Movement came more from the strata of displaced peddlers, boatmen, coolies and others rather than from the ranks of the peasantry. [2] Franz Michael, The Taiping Rebellion, (the University of Washington Press, 1966) 15; Donald Stark, What were the causes of the various rebellions of mid-nineteenth century China, and why did the Ch? This phenomenon forced many small peasants into debt as they borrowed money to be able to pay the tax on time and eventually caused them to lose their land. Et encore : « Combien de femmes un homme peut-il avoir ?

[10] S.Y. Teng, The Taiping rebellion and The Western Powers: A comprehensive survey, (Oxford 1971) 25 to meet the public demand. Par ailleurs, en 1861, l'état Taiping commence à émettre des billets de banque, libellés en taels ; ces billets de banque, d'une taille considérable (18 cm × 31 cm), ne sont imprimés que sur une seule face. Even after the last major centres of resistance to Manchu rule had been snuffed out, the area continued be difficult to control. Ceci put se faire sans trop de difficultés, même si la langue parlée par les Zhuang n'a rien à voir avec le chinois, car la culture han de la région témoigne d'une grande diversité linguistique, dont elle s'accommode facilement. L'appui des Occidentaux, à partir de 1860 environ, est acquis aux Impériaux, et principalement celui de la France et du Royaume-Uni.

In Kwangtung and Kwangsi provinces, a major source of social tension was the centuries long conflict between the people known as the Hakka and the original settlers (known as penti). They had realised that the lack of an ideology had prevented these organisations from becoming mass movements and this was something that the Taipings were able to rectify. The effects of the Opium War and foreign trade also made causes of Taiping Rebellion. Apart from the over taxation, high rents were another characteristic feature of the rural countryside.

Since the increase of population, more and more peasants had no land to produce food and their lives met a really crisis. Ce « proto-nationalisme » ne fut d'ailleurs pas uniquement dirigé contre les puissances étrangères qui avaient humilié la Chine par la signature de « traités inégaux », refusés par les Taiping, mais également contre la dynastie Qing elle-même, d'origine mandchoue, qui les avaient signés après avoir été vaincue. As a source of livelihood, they now turned to banditry. CAUSES OF TAIPING REBELLION CAUSES OF TAIPING REBELLION Throughout the last decades of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century, scarcely a year passed without violent protest or armed rebellion.

Thus, in light of such arguements it is essential to look at some of the other factors that could have brought about the Taiping Rebellion. Enfin, Hong Rengan (1822-1864), un cousin de Hong Xiuquan, rejoint les Taiping en 1859 à la demande de celui-ci.

Sung Thang believes that, while economic factors may have been responsible, in case of China all rebellions and revolutions in the past were caused due to political corruption. As the officials and Gentry were within a system that could not expand, they were forced to improve their position at the expense of others and through the process of over taxation. Enfin, pour Mao Zedong, l'échec des révoltes paysannes fut causé par l'absence d'une « hégémonie correcte » par le prolétariat et le parti communiste[49]. Le gouvernement de la dynastie des Qing prend conscience de l'ampleur de la révolte des Taiping, et les impériaux s'emploient à lever des armées pour la stopper. [6] Therefore, many intellectuals were unemployed and provided their leadership for rebellious groups. Finally, the ‘Dynastic Decline Theory’ has come to be looked upon as a western prejudice against Eastern civilisations. Relief funds and taxes were embezzled Il est exécuté au mois d'octobre 1864. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 27 juillet 2020 à 18:28. Therefore the population had gone up by 116% while the land in cultivation had only increased by 5% – making the average amount of land per capita 1.8mou. Ideological factors Comme leur nom de « familles invitées » le suggère, les Hakka étaient considérés comme des immigrés de fraîche date, souvent soumis aux moqueries et à l'hostilité de la majorité han. To pad this deficit, the rulers used unjust taxation and the major burden of payment of taxes fell on the peasants. The Taiping Rebellion was in many respects the hinge between China’s pre-modern and modern histories.

Teng, The Taiping rebellion and The Western Powers: A comprehensive survey, (Oxford 1971), 29

Their lawlessness and abuses of the local populations caused the popular sentiments to shift from hating the western foreigners to despising the Manchus. Mais la petite armée formée par Ward était entraînée et équipée à l'occidentale, et disposait du meilleur armement disponible ; disciplinée et mobile, elle était appuyée par une flottille de canonnières et des moyens de transport. This theory fails to describe the reasons as to why the dynasty would fall. [7] S.Y. En 1851 et en 1855, le Fleuve jaune sort de son lit, noyant des milliers de personnes, et contribuant à provoquer la révolte des Nian. Ces pièces de monnaie de cuivre n'ont que peu de valeur, rendant nécessaire de les attacher en collier de 1 000 pièces, valant un liang d'argent (une once d'argent pur)[66]. Mais les rebelles n'ont pas la moindre idée de ce qu'est un gouvernement.
The continuous shrinkage of individual landholdings could mean only increasing hardship for the peasant. Un des principaux dirigeants de l'armée impériale est Zeng Guo Fan (1811-1872), qui est chargé en 1853 par les Qing de lever une armée et de diriger les opérations.

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